Citing Sources

There are varying ways to cite sources. Usually, a short form of the citation is included within the text of the paper (referred to as in-text or parenthetical citations) and then the full citation is given on the last page of the paper, sometimes referred to as a "Works Cited" page, a "References" page, or a "Bibliography" page.

Also, there are different styles to citing sources. The following styles are commonly used:
  • APA (American Psychological Association) Format is generally used to cite sources within the social sciences and sciences.
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) Format is generally used to cite sources within the humanities, liberal arts, and business studies.
Citation Style Guides Online


Guide to MLA Style
from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
MLA style

Guide to APA Style
from Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
APA style
*Updated to 7th ed., Oct. 2019;
see this article from Faculty Focus for notable changes and the
APA site for printable handouts and guides

Guide to Chicago Style
from Chicago Manual of Style
Chicago style
Guide to Turabian Style (7th Edition)
from Chicago Manual of Style
Turabian style
Citation Tools

RefWorks Refworks: Collect, organize, and cite references in multiple citation styles. Organize and annotate your PDF files. Use your citations in Microsoft Word or Google Docs.

Citation Builder
Automatically generates citations in various styles (APA, MLA, and CBE/CSE) from any source format (book, scholarly article, Web site, etc.) (From the Libraries of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

Zotero is a free Firefox extension that helps you collect, manage, and cite your research sources.

Mendeley is a desktop and web program for managing and sharing research papers, discovering research data and collaborating online. It combines Mendeley Desktop, a PDF and reference management application (available for Windows, OS X and Linux) and apps for Android and iOS, with Mendeley Web, an online social network for researchers (Produced by Elsevier)
Citation Guides in the Library
Print Citation Guides:
Citation Guides Online:


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